UPSC syllabus serves as the guiding force for the IAS aspirants and all the IAS toppers and mentors suggest covering all the topics given in the IAS syllabus. The candidates should try to assess the impact and dynamics of one topic with other topics because no events happen in isolation, everything is connected. UPSC IAS notification notifies the IAS prelims and main syllabus separately, but in reality, the IAS question papers suggest a comprehensive integrated preparation of the IAS syllabus. Reading and understanding the UPSC syllabus is the first step of the IAS preparation.
IAS Syllabus – Prelims
Before going for the syllabus for the IAS prelims exam, let’s have a glance of IAS Prelims Scheme of Exam. The time duration of each of the paper is two hours.
|Paper||Questions & Time||Marks|
|General Studies Paper I||100 Questions||200|
|General Studies Paper-II (CSAT – Qualifying only)||80 Questions||200 ( Marks not considered)|
IAS Prelims Syllabus – General Studies Paper I
- Current events of national and international importance.
- History of India and Indian National Movement.
- Indian and World Geography-Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
- Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
- Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
- General issues on environmental ecology, bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialization.
- General Science.
IAS Prelims Syllabus – General Studies Paper-II (CSAT)
- Interpersonal skills including communication skills
- Logical reasoning and analytical ability
- Decision making and problem-solving
- General mental ability
- Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.)(Class X level), data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency, etc. — Class X level)
IAS Syllabus – Main Exam
The IAS main exam is descriptive type(conventional) paper-based exam in which the candidates need to write long answers for the questions. In addition to general studies papers, there is an essay paper in which the candidates need to write two essays. Following are the IAS main papers and their marks.
|Paper||Name of the Paper||Marks allotted|
|A||One of the Indian language to be selected by the candidate from the languages included in the Eighth Schedule to the constitution(Qualifying only)||300 (Qualifying Only)|
|B||English(Qualifying Only)||300 (Qualifying Only)|
|2||General Studies I||250|
|3||General Studies II||250|
|4||General Studies III||250|
|5||General Studies IV||250|
|6||Optional Subject Paper I||250|
|7||Optional Subject Paper I||250|
|IAS Main (written)Total||1750|
IAS main exam, as the name suggests, is the main exam for the candidates. The IAS selection is based on the marks got in the IAS main (written) and IAS main (personality test) only. UPSC provides the IAS syllabus topic list in the official notification. The UPSC syllabus is provided in a paper-wise format and the candidates need to prepare for the IAS exam in the same manner. Let us see the IAS Syllabus in detail.
IAS Syllabus – Essay Paper
There is no mention of IAS essay paper syllabus in the UPSC notification. Only a broad outline is provided in the official notification. But the expectation from the candidates has been mentioned in the notification. “They will be expected to keep close to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in an orderly fashion and to write concisely. Credit will be given for effective and exact expression.”
IAS Syllabus – General Studies Paper-I
Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society.
- Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
- Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.
- The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
- Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
- History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, re-drawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.
- Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
- Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
- Effects of globalization on Indian society.
- Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
- Salient features of the world’s physical geography.
- Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).
- Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
IAS Syllabus – General Studies Paper-II
Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations.
- Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
- Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
- Separation of powers between various organs, dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
- Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply.
- Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.
- Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, the conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
- Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
- Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
- Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies. Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
- Development processes and the development industry —the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.
- Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
- Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
- Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
- Role of civil services in a democracy.
- India and its neighbourhood- relations.
- Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
- Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.
- Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.
IAS Syllabus General Studies Paper III
Technology, Economic Development, Biodiversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management
- Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.
- Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
- Government Budgeting.
- Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
- Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
- Food processing and related industries in India- scope’ and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
- Land reforms in India.
- Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
- Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
- Investment models.
- Science and technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
- Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
- Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
- Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
- Disaster and disaster management.
- Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
- Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
- Challenges to internal security through communication networks, the role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cybersecurity; money laundering and its prevention.
- Security challenges and their management in border areas – linkages of organized crime with terrorism.
- Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.
IAS Ethics Syllabus
Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude
This paper will include questions to test the candidates’ attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem-solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilise the case study approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be covered :
- Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; the role of family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
- Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
- Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.
- Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
- Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and the world.
- Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
- Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of
- Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
- Case Studies on the above issues.
What are the Optional subjects in IAS?
There are 25 optional subjects in the IAS main exam and the candidates need to choose only one out of them. The optional subject carries 500 marks out of 1750. It is around 30% of the total. So the candidates are suggested to select the optional subject very carefully because it can make or break the dream of becoming an IAS officer.
The following is the official list of IAS main optional subjects. The candidates can choose any one subject as the optional subject.
|Agriculture||Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science||Anthropology|
|Commerce and Accountancy||Economics||Electrical Engineering|
|Mechanical Engineering||Medical Science||Philosophy|
|Physics||Political Science and International Relations||Psychology|
The candidates can choose the Literature of any one of the following languages as their optional subject: